Which branch of medicine studies how to improve vaccination rates through vaccination campaigns?
Public Health covers those fields, among other areas
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Vaccinations are methods of introducing antigens into your body to get your body's immune system to react to them by producing antibodies to kill them or inactivate them, which will give you immunity to the antigen. In other words, vaccinations can be shots (or other types of injections under the sk…in), liquids taken by mouth, or intranasal sprays that give you a small dose of something that can't make you sick itself, but is just like or similar enough to something that would make you sick if you got it in its normal form. They are given to you made with the right antigens to make you immune to the disease or infection from which you want protection. See the related questions for more information. (MORE)
A vaccine is used in medicine to enhance or induce immunity to aparticular disease. It usually contains an agent that resembles thedisease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened orkilled forms of the microbe or its toxins. The body's immune systemrecognizes the vaccine as foreign, an…d destroys it. It alsopreserves a memory of it so that, if it encounters it again, it caneasily recognize and destroy it in later encounters. Vaccines have been used to eradicate smallpox completely, havegreatly diminished the occurrence of many other diseases, and havereduced the death and disfigurement they used to cause. Polio (andthe paralysis that it causes ) is now almost a thing of the past,and congenital deformities due to rubella (German measles) is nowquite rare. Some vaccines are given after exposure to disease; rabies vaccineis an example of this. Rabies infection was once 100% lethal; itstill is if the vaccine is not given in time. There are several types of vaccines, and they are generally madefrom dead or inactivated organisms (bacteria or viruses), or fromtheir chemical constituents. KILLED: Some vaccines contain microorganisms that have beendestroyed with chemicals or heat. Examples include Hepatitis A,influenza, cholera, bubonic plague, polio (Salk injectable vaccine)and rabies. ATTENUATED: Other vaccines contain microorganisms that have beenweakened and are no longer virulent, or use very similar butnon-disease causing organisms. Most of these are viruses. Thesevaccines generally produce the strongest and longest-lastingimmunity, and are preferred in healthy adults. Examples includeyellow fever, measles, rubella, mumps, influenza, tuberculosis(BCG), typhoid and polio (Sabin oral). TOXOID: Some vaccines target the toxic compounds (toxoids) producedby microorganisms which cause illness rather than themicro-organism itself. Examples include tetanus and diphtheria. SUBUNIT: Other vaccines use a fragment of a micro-organism toinduce an immune response rather than using the entiremicro-organism. These are usually proteins from the capsule of avirus. Examples include hepatitis B, HPV (human papilloma viruswhich causes cervical cancer) and influenza vaccines are alsoavailable in this form of vaccine. CONJUGATE: A newer type of vaccine in which the immune system istaught to recognize the polysaccharide outer coats of somebacteria. An example is Haemophilus influenzae type B(Hib). This organism is a bacterium, not a virus, despite its name. ADJUVANTED: Adjuvanted vaccines for some microbes are available inthe US. The US has, however chosen not to use adjuvants in fluvaccinations. But adjuvanted flu vaccines have been safely andsuccessfully used in some European countries for years. These havean additive that enhances the effectiveness of the vaccine, allowsfor smaller doses since less is needed per dose to get the sameimmune response, and that saves money per dose as well as allowsfaster production of enough to go around. In times of a need forrapid development of a vaccine, this helps reduce the dose of eachvaccination making a little go a long way. The adjuvant substanceis often squalene, made from shark liver oil. There is no provenadverse effect of use of adjuvants, although it is a concern(appropriate or not) of many people. OTHER: Some vaccines have a trace amount of a preservative calledthimerosal. This is necessary for multi-dose vials to preventgrowth of unwanted organisms. Single dose vials and syringesusually don't need this preservative (in flu vaccines). People haveconcern about thimerosal because they have heard it containsmercury. There is a trace amount of mercury in the thimerosal,although this has been used without adverse effects. The amount ofmercury in a dose of vaccines with thimerosal preservative isequivalent to a meal of fish. The risk of having a problem withthimerosal is much lower than the risk of using a vaccine without apreservative. See also links to related questions about vaccines. (MORE)
Vaccination protects hundreds of millions of animals worldwide from diseases and possibly death. Vaccination can be by a wide variety of routes: through water, baits, air spray, eye inoculation, intrinsically, orally or using the more classical injection. A vaccine is made from dead or weakened m…icrobes, or parts (e.g. surface proteins of a virus) thereof. Once it enters the body, the immune system develops antibodies to it. In the case of exposure to the microbe in the future, antibodies will then fight off/destroy that microbe to prevent disease. (MORE)
Vaccines are medicines containing a preparation of weakened or deadmicrobes of the kind that cause a particular disease which areadministered to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodiesagainst that specific disease. Once your body has been exposed tothe pathogen and antibodies have been pro…duced, you may be immuneto the disease for life. Other vaccines may require boosters orsecond doses over time. In the example of the swine flu, thevaccines are given each flu season for the type of flu virusesexpected to be circulating in that season. Additional note: The first vaccine was produced from the blood serum harvested fromthe pustules on the hands of women who milked cows. Edward Jennernoticed that those women seemed to be immune to smallpox. Hereasoned that the women who milked cows got this immunity from asimilar, but milder disease called cowpox. When inoculated with theweaker cowpox virus, the body creates antibodies that recognize thesame antigen, common to both viruses and gives the person immunity.The name "vaccine" was derived from the Latin word for cow (vacca)for that reason. A vaccine is an inactive strain of a bacteria that causes disease. In your body you have antigens as an example we'll call them shapes, so say you were ill because some bacteria had entered your body, and bacteria travels by basically piggybacking off blood cells this bacteria was in the shape of a semicircle so your body would keep producing Antigens until one fits (this is a rough explanation) when it fits you body remembers that shape so that if you are introduced to that strain of bacteria again your body can deal with it straight away with out you feeling ill. A vaccine improves your body's immune system by giving you a tiny amount of weakened microbes, which stimulates your body to recognize it and begin making anti-bodies against it. This will help you in the future when you actually come across the real, stronger microbe, your body will already have knowledge and experience against it. A vaccination is an injection of a dead bacterium. Your body then recognizes this bacterium and your immune system fights it off. See the related links for more information. A vaccine is a biological preparation that establishes or improves immunity to a particular disease. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by a pathogen. They typically contain one or more adjuvants which are used to boost the immune system. Some vaccines may also contain preservatives which are used to prevent contamination with bacteria and fungi. The general idea behind a vaccine is to purposely inoculate yourself to produce an immunuity to a particular disease. A few different types of vaccines are:1. Inactivated vaccine- consists of virus particles grown in culture and then killed which means they can't replicate. This vaccine requires booster shots periodically.2. Attenuated vaccine- live virus particles with very low virulence are administered and they will reproduce but very slowly. Since they reproduce and continue to present antigen beyond the initial vaccination, booster shots are needed less often.3. Subunit vaccine-presents an antigen to the immune system without introducing viral particles. A weakness of this technique is that isolated proteins can be denatured and will then bind to different antibodies then the proteins in the virus. A vaccine is a biological preparation that establishes or improves immunity to a particular disease. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by a pathogen. They typically contain one or more adjuvants which are used to boost the immune system. Some vaccines may also contain preservatives which are used to prevent contamination with bacteria and fungi. The general idea behind a vaccine is to purposely inoculate yourself to produce an immunuity to a particular disease. A few different types of vaccines are:1. Inactivated vaccine- consists of virus particles grown in culture and then killed which means they can't replicate. This vaccine requires booster shots periodically.2. Attenuated vaccine- live virus particles with very low virulence are administered and they will reproduce but very slowly. Since they reproduce and continue to present antigen beyond the initial vaccination, booster shots are needed less often.3. Subunit vaccine-presents an antigen to the immune system without introducing viral particles. A weakness of this technique is that isolated proteins can be denatured and will then bind to different antibodies then the proteins in the virus. (MORE)
there's no effective treatment, so doctors usually focus on making the disease comfortable for the people who have it
'Vaccines' are a suspension of dead, attenuated, or otherwise modified microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, or rickettsiae) for inoculation to produce immunity to a disease by stimulating the production of antibodies
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (the vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease. Vaccines can prevent or lessen the effects of infection by many different viruses and bacteria. The material administered can either be live but weakened forms of pathogens (bacteriaor viruses), …killed or inactivated forms of these pathogens, or purified material such as proteins. (MORE)
vaccination is a vaccine that stimulate your immune system to develop adaptive immunity to disease.
Vaccination introduce small amount of a disease to your body so that your natural immune systems builds anti-bodies and such to fight the disease. This makes your immune system stronger so that it can more effectively fight the disease or completely resist the disease when you get exposed to the rea…l thing.. How is that? (MORE)
Veterinary medicine is its own branch of science, but it comes under both the medical sciences and zoology, a division of biology..
The currently recommended vaccine schedule in the US starts at birth and follows a regular series every few months through the first 18 months of life. After that the recommendations are: Flu shot every year from 6 mos to 18 years, age 50 on, and in people with certain medical problems and health…y 19-49 year olds who wish to avoid getting the flu. tetanus, polio, measles/mumps/ rubella and chicken pox (varicella) after age 4. Tdap (tetanus) booster at age 11-12. Menactra (meningitis) at age 11-12. Garadsil (HPV) series of three shots (primarily for girls) at age 11-12. Tetanus every 10 years. Pneumovax at age 65 and with certain medical conditions. There is a new version of one of the infant vaccines out - Prevnar-13. A booster with this new one is recommended for kids under 5 years old who go the full series with the old version. There are also a lot of special circumstances such as travel, exposures, and some medical conditions that would make other vaccines recommended. (MORE)
A vaccine is the medicine used to prevent specific infections. A vaccination is how the medicine is given to you. "I'm wondering, what are the ingredients in the flu vaccine." (what are the ingredients in the medicine used for vaccination) "It didn't hurt a bit when that pretty nurse did… the vaccination." (administered the vaccine/gave you the medicine) (MORE)
"a "vaccine" is the thing you get vaccinated WITH.. a "vaccination" is the process of being vaccinated." WRONG the real answer is that vaccinations are naturally weakened form of the virus, this was made by edward Jenner and was named vaccination for some stupid latin reason. The vaccine how…ever ( made by Louis pasteur) is an Artificially weakened form of a virus and Louis pasteur named it in honor of edward Jenner's vaccination. (MORE)
\n. \nI am not sure. I just wanted to type. I'm not helping. Sorry.\n. \ni am not sure either but you have to get shots for that puppy but the docter does that NOT ASKING YOU TO DO IT.
What is the polio vaccine? The polio vaccine helps decrease your risk of becoming infected with polio. Vaccines work by causing your body to make antibodies against certain germs. Antibodies are special cells in your blood that protect the body and fight infection. After you receive the polio vacci…ne, these antibodies remember the polio germs. Once you are exposed to these types of germs, your body quickly recognizes them. The antibodies become active and your body is better able to fight the germs. There are two types of polio vaccines, the oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV).. Oral polio vaccine: This vaccine is made from live polio germs that are weakened. It is given as drops in the mouth that are swallowed. OPV goes through the digestive tract and out of the anus (rear end). This keeps the disease from being spread to other people. In very few cases, OPV can cause actual infection to the patient. OPV is no longer recommended in the United States but may be used in certain conditions. This type of vaccine is especially used in cases where a large number of people are infected. (MORE)
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have collected the necessary material from the virus samples and have provided it to selected Drug Manufacturers that have the facilities to produce the vaccine as quickly as possible and who are already …in the process of making the vaccine. It is expected that they will have the vaccine ready by this summer (2009) which will be in time for the Northern Hemisphere's next flu season, and perhaps also in time for the Southern Hemisphere before the flu season there is over. The WHO and CDC are working together with the drug companies and with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to assure the most rapid course of trials and then approval processes of the vaccine drugs once they are developed, so that production can begin on an emergency time schedule. (MORE)
i think it was small pox. The year was 1798 followed by cholera in 1879. Then came rabies.
i have no clue so ask some one els ok! i am not a computer i am a human look it up in a book or something are you thick ?
Yes. There is a vaccine to prevent bacterial pneumococcal pneumonia (aka Streptococcus pneumoniae) and it is taken every five years to prevent that form of pneumonia.
The success rate of vaccines varies wiidely. Some examples are:chicken pox vaccine, 90%, flu vaccine, 65%, HPV vaccine, 50%, andHepatitis B vacine, 95%.
Chickenpox (Varicella): Var, MMRV . Diphtheria: DTaP, Td, Tdap . Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib): Hib . Hepatitis: Hep A, Hep B . Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection: HPV4 . Influenza: TIV, LAIV . Measles (Rubeola): MMR, MMRV . Meningococcal: MCV, MPSV . Mumps: MMR, MMRV . Pe…rtussis (Whooping Cough): DTaP, DTP, Tdap . Pneumococcal: PCV, PPSV . Polio: IPV . Rabies . Rotavirus: RV1, RV5 . Rubella (German Measles): MMR, MMRV . Shingles (Herpes Zoster): Zos . Tetanus (Lockjaw): DT, DTaP, Td, Tdap (MORE)
Yes, but it may alter the appearance of the tattoo, also you won't be able to see if there is an adverse reaction to the vaccine- redness, etc because the tattoo will mask the reaction.
In short, a vaccination prevents you from catching a particular sickness. Vaccinations allow the immune system to become better prepared for a certain antigen (foreign invader) by giving it a "target" (usually a weaker or deaden strain of the antigen) to practice on. During the immune response to t…he vaccination, the body's supply of antibodies (and the B cells that produce it) is drastically increased. Should the vaccinated person encounter the antigen after vaccination, his/her immune system will be well prepared to put up a good fight. This is true for any effective vaccination against any antigen. (MORE)
There are various places to have a vaccination a hospital, sometimes Wal Mart will let you purchase them that is a couple of places you can get them.
Pieces (or synthetic pieces) of the disease causing organism called antigens that can be recognized by the immune system as something that does not belong in the body. This prompts the immune system to produce antibodies that recognize those antigens and attack them the next time they appear, typi…cally when challenged by the real disease causing organism. (MORE)
Vaccine stabilizers are chemicals that are added to vaccines toinactivate a virus or bacteria and stabilize the vaccine, helpingto preserve the vaccine and prevent it from losing its potency overtime.
It is a oral vaccine . The previous name was polio vaccine licensed in 1955 and was used extensively from that time until the early 1960s. In 1961, the oral vaccine was licensed.
Only those that will fight against bacteria or viruses that have occured in your herd in the past. If you don't have any health problems, or haven't had any concerns in your herd, then you don't need to vaccinate. However, most vaccinations for cows include: - BVD/IBR/PI3 - Coccidiosis - Blackleg a…nd other Clostridium bacteria - Tuberculosis and Brucelosis But only vaccinate if your soils contain bacteria that will cause problems in your herd. Otherwise you'll be fixing problems that didn't need fixing in the first place. (MORE)
Seems to me no one knows the answer to this question. Even the CDC doesn't go into detail on this question. I'm starting to smell "The Emperor wears no clothes effect." It would be easy to test. Simply give someone the rabies vaccine shots, then inject them with rabies. It will either work or not...…. Every city should randomly do the testing themselves. It would be inexpensive and easy to do. I have a hunch there would be a significant failure rate. Don't believe me ask a pathologist. I did. I even asked many vets and doctors. Everyone of them told me there is no known amount of vaccine which creates immunity. In other words, the effectiveness is unproven and yet, it's hyped to us as a proven science..... Take your shots! (MORE)
Yes. It was first made when Edward Jenner injected the cowpox virus into individuals in 1796, which worked because the diseases are in the same family and close enough to trick the immune system. Interestingly, Jenner named the vaccine after the root word for cow, which is vacca in Latin.
Drugs are the chemical molecules which are used to cure some imbalance in the humanbody. this drugs will not involve in the any immune proliferation. and once disease maybe get cured by the drug we have the chance to regain. Vaccines are the parts of microbes, microbes in killed live or attenuated f…orm of micro organism, which are directly affecting immune system or proliferating the immune system by this we are getting persistence to the disease. once the person has been administrated with the vaccine means he may not get disease again. and drugs are taking after the observing of the symptoms and vaccines are taking before the symptoms and.. vaccines are working on the principle "prevention is better-then cure". and medicine is the crude term for the denoting the all types of drugs in genrally. it is not have any specification. (MORE)
Same as any other dog, but they may need their eyes checked more carefully than other breeds.
A vaccine is basically made of a small amount of the disease-causing organism, either inert/inactive/in pieces or alive but attenuated (weakened so it can not make you sick), which is mixed in a liquid with ingredients for purity, for preservation, and for sterile injection (for shots). How vacci…nes work: They trigger an immune response so our body can make defenses against the infectious organism, so we are at the ready with antibodies if we are exposed to the full strength organism in the wild again. Antibodies, small molecules that attach to the virus or bacterium infecting you, act by either tagging a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or by neutralizing its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (MORE)
Almost any vaccine can be administered together. It is actually favorable to do this because once some vaccines (live attenuated) are given you must wait 28 days before receiving other vaccines. The only 2 that should not be given together are cholera and yellow fever which are not common in the Uni…ted States and Europe rph (MORE)
it hasn't been developed. its a virus from the protista kingdom. so it cannot be healed only managed. Viruses don't leave your body once you get them. they just lay dormant inside your body after they have been healed. they're virtually impossible to kill
We need vaccine so you learn to spell or not no whats ur tyin ta sa u dum siht head
It is a vaccine for the prevention of bacterial meningococcal disease and meningitis (infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord). From manufacturer package literature: "Menactra vaccine is indicated for active immunization to prevent invasive meningococcal disease caused by N men…ingitidis serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135. Menactra vaccine is approved for use in individuals 9 months through 55 years of age. Menactra vaccine does not prevent N meningitidis serogroup B disease. " . (MORE)
The words vaccine and vaccination were made up by Edward Jenner whoexperimented with vaccines including the smallpoxvaccination in 1790 which could be prevented from occurringwith a mild version of cowpox pus, instead of the virulent anddangerous smallpox pus used before Jenner's work for more tha…n 4000years in the smallpox inoculation that sometimes causedsmallpox instead of preventing it and could even kill therecipient. The word vaccination derives from the Latin word vacca meaning cow. Later vaccines (e.g. rabies, MMR,tuberculosis, polio, canine distemper, canine parvovirus,infectious canine hepatitis, adenovirus-2, leptospirosis,bordetella, canine parainfluenza, anthrax, plague, Lyme disease,flu) have nothing at all to do with cows, but the name "vaccine"stuck. (MORE)
Because he really wanted to make a difference and he felt bad for the people that had Polio. (I did a report on him once.)
There are now three different administration routes for flu vaccines: the "classic" shot/jab that goes into muscle tissue; the nasal mist that is sprayed into the nose; and a new intradermal vaccine (new in the 2012-2013 flu season), that is injected within the layers of the skin using a needle that… is 90% smaller than the needle used in an IM (intramuscular) injection. The spray is made to be absorbed by mucous tissue and, typically, the most accessible location of mucous tissue is the lining of the nose. See the related questions below for more information about the different flu vaccines and routes of vaccine administration. (MORE)
yes it is a game have you every played grand theft auto iv that s set in L.A and called grand theft auto but miss the grand theft auto out it brings you iv
Cholera Vaccine. Flu vaccines formulated for injection use inert/inactive virus particles ("dead"), while flu vaccines for nasal mist are made as a LAIV (live attenuated influenza vaccine), which means they are "alive" but weakened chemically to prevent them from being able to cause illness.
In America, it depends on your age. I know that the younger you are, the more frequently you have to get vaccines. Yearly, in the teen years, boys usually have to get about 1 more than girls. Every year (pre teen and teen) you have to get about 4 or 5. 5 or 6 for guys. It also depends when you had y…our last dose of that vaccine. Some vaccines you only have to get every 10 years (like tetanus)! (MORE)
At this time, only two chickenpox vaccines are recommended in the series. A third vaccine isn't not recommended, even if the varicella titer indicates no reaction or insufficient titer levels. See related link for references. Another answer: Not all will be immune with two doses. A low titer may …require a third dose. (MORE)
A physicist and a pathologist. There is no single term for someone that does both. A pathologist may specifically study the effects of gravity on vaccines
Vaccine is a minidisease of which you want your body to be immune against. When you take the vaccine, your body destroys the virus and "remembers" it. You will then be able to get rid of the disease instantly.
Pasteur did not discover chickenpox vaccine. However, death rates due to chickenpox have decreased over 90% in the US since chickenpox vaccine was approved.
Yes. The rabies vaccine is live vaccine. You have HDCV, chicken embryo cell vaccine and vero monkey cell culture vaccines available.
Strong Medicine - 2000 Vaccinations - 4.7 was released on: USA: 27 July 2003 Hungary: 16 June 2010
You could be vaccinated with medicines that help your body to goagainst chickenpox, polio or other diseases that could infect yourbody.